Show Comments ▼ Tags: NULL ONLINE gaming group Zynga is holding talks with potential investors which could lead to it raising $250m (£156m) in new funding.That may give Zynga a valuation of between $7bn and $9bn, in yet another example of rich valuations for technology companies that some analysts have compared to the dotcom boom. Zynga, known for games including FarmVille and Mafia Wars, filed papers in April authorising the issuance of new stock that valued the company at about $4bn. Last week, Google and Facebook , plus others, held low level takeover talks with Twitter that give the sensation a value as high as $10bn. Facebook is said to be worth a cool $50bn, according to a recent private placing. More From Our Partners Brave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.org980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.org Dotcom frenzy as Zynga gets $9bn price tag whatsapp Share KCS-content whatsapp Monday 14 February 2011 9:21 pm
Livestock Feed Limited (LFL.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2013 annual report.For more information about Livestock Feed Limited (LFL.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Livestock Feed Limited (LFL.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Livestock Feed Limited (LFL.mu) 2013 annual report.Company ProfileLivestock Feed Limited specialises in the production of animal feeds locally and regionally. The company is a pioneer in the manufacturing of animal feeds in Mauritius and collaborates with international partners who specialise in the same field such as Mixscience and Invivo, who are also leading groups in the European farming field. Livestock Feed Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc (GLAXOS.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Pharmaceuticals sector has released it’s 2014 interim results for the half year.For more information about Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc (GLAXOS.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc (GLAXOS.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc (GLAXOS.ng) 2014 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileGlaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc manufactures and markets a range of consumer healthcare and pharmaceutical products in Nigeria. Its product portfolio includes treatments for asthma, HIV/AIDS, malaria, depression, migraines, diabetes, heart failure, digestive ailments and cancer. Consumer healthcare products include oral healthcare products; wellness products for the management of pain, gastro-intestinal and respiratory conditions; multivitamins; and a range of nutritional healthcare beverages. Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc produces a range of antibacterial products and vaccines to protect against illnesses such as hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, typhoid, influenza and cervical cancer. The company was formerly known as Beecham Limited. Its head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Glaxosmithkline Consumer Nigeria Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Longhorn Publishers Plc (LKL.ke) listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Retail sector has released it’s 2020 annual report.For more information about Longhorn Publishers Plc (LKL.ke) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Longhorn Publishers Plc (LKL.ke) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Longhorn Publishers Plc (LKL.ke) 2020 annual report.Company ProfileLonghorn Publishers Plc publishes and sells educational and general books and distributes them through retail and ecommerce channels to customers in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Rwanda. Formerly known as Longhorn Kenya Limited, the company changed its name to Longhorn Publishers Limited in 2014. The company publishes reading material for all levels of education under five main brands; eLearning material, educational text books, fiction and nonfiction books and material for tertiary colleges and universities. Longhorn Publishers acquired the intellectual property of Sasa Sema Publications Limited and provides reference books, creative works, biographies and general knowledge books in either print or non-print (electronic) format. Longhorn Publishers is the only publisher with full approval by the Ministry of Education in Kenya and mandated to supply text books for 12 key subjects for secondary and primary schools. Longhorn eBooks store is a digital platform created by the publishing house and the largest eBook library in the Africa sub-region. The company head office is in Nairobi, Kenya. Longhorn Publishers Plc is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange
Rector Knoxville, TN The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Comments (1) Press Release Service [Episcopal News Service] Archbishop Joris Vercammen of the Old Catholic Churches of the Union of Utrecht and Bishop Pierre Whalon of the Convocation of Episcopal Churches in Europe talk about their churches’ long-standing full communion relationship and the benefits of entering into deeper communion. Course Director Jerusalem, Israel October 23, 2013 at 11:43 pm Perhaps the ‘deeper communion’ will spread to this country. Of course, hoping for a deeper communion between the Episcopal Church (of which I am a member) and the Roman Catholic Church is ironic, when the present members of the Episcopal Church and the former members (who call themselves Anglicans) are not really in communion with each other. We can only hope for the best. Oh, yes, I also hope for a deeper communion with the Lutheran Church (and/or the divisions thereof). As Alexander Pope said, “Hope springs eternal …” Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Robert w. Scruggs says: Ecumenical & Interreligious, Tags Video Submit an Event Listing Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Rector Smithfield, NC Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector Belleville, IL Rector Martinsville, VA TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Rector Albany, NY New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Featured Events Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Virtual Episcopal Latino Ministry Competency Course Online Course Aug. 9-13 Episcopal Church releases new prayer book translations into Spanish and French, solicits feedback Episcopal Church Office of Public Affairs Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Shreveport, LA Submit a Job Listing Comments are closed. Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest An Evening with Aliya Cycon Playing the Oud Lancaster, PA (and streaming online) July 3 @ 7 p.m. ET Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Submit a Press Release Rector Tampa, FL Rector Washington, DC Curate Diocese of Nebraska Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector Hopkinsville, KY Featured Jobs & Calls Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC By Matthew DaviesPosted Oct 23, 2013 Video: Vercammen, Whalon discuss full communion The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Associate Rector Columbus, GA Youth Minister Lorton, VA Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Collierville, TN Director of Music Morristown, NJ Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Rector Bath, NC Rector Pittsburgh, PA
About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. 39 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis2 Tagged with: Digital ABF The Soldiers’ Charity this week begins its first digital campaign, inviting the British public to join its ‘Thanks, Soldier’ campaign. Throughout December the charity is encouraging people to add their photos to a huge digital Union flag which will be projected at the end of this year on an “an iconic British landmark”.Working with digital engagement agency Nonsense, the charity is asking people to show their support by visiting its website and adding their Facebook profile image to the growing flag. As the flag grows, people can then search it for themselves and their friends.Celebrities including Fern Britton, Joanna Lumley, Gary Lineker, Ben Sheppard and Kate Humble have already added their photos.The Soldiers’ Charity has been the national charity of the British Army since 1944.The Soldiers’ Charity Digital Communications Manager, Stephen Steele, said: “Our digital ‘Thanks Soldier’ campaign is new territory for the charity and shows how much the brand has grown. We hope we can increase awareness of the great work The Soldiers’ Charity does and at the same time show our appreciation to all service men and women, especially to those who are away from their families at this time of the year.”www.soldierscharity.org.uk/thanks AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis2 Howard Lake | 5 December 2011 | News ABF The Soldiers’ Charity’s first digital campaign says ‘thank you’
Tagged with: COVID-19 Unicef The Marley family has launched a reimagined version of Bob Marley’s ‘One Love’ in support of UNICEF’s work with children affected by Covid-19.All funds raised will go to the charity’s Reimagine fundraising campaign, with people challenged to share their own versions and give a donation.Last released in 1977 by Bob Marley & The Wailers on their album ‘Exodus, Tuff Gong International and Amplified Music released a new version of the song on 17 July.The song and music video also come during the year-long celebration of Bob Marley’s 75th birthday, and feature artists and musicians from Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Jamaica, Mali, New Zealand, Nigeria, Sudan, Syria, the United Kingdom and the United States, including Stephen Marley, Cedella Marley, Skip Marley, Ghetto Youths Foundation, Kim Nain, Manifesto JA, and more. Bob Marley’s One Love relaunches for UNICEF AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis16 “We’re really excited to be a part of this campaign, and with the pandemic causing dramatic shifts in audience behaviours and how they view the world, uniting everybody around the theme of global solidarity is particularly apt right now. UNICEF does incredible work, and innovation is really at the heart of it, so partnering with TikTok is the perfect opportunity to tap into those shifts and find new and engaging ways to help save children’s lives. We want to use the reach we have as a group to support the fight against coronavirus in any way we can.” 1,156 total views, 2 views today [youtube height=”450″width=”800″]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXLumLvHWfA&feature=youtu.be[/youtube] The video is a compilation of footage from all around the world including children from Ghetto Youths Foundation, a non-profit organisation founded by Stephen, Damian and Julian Marley; The Dharavi Dream Project in India; artists from Manifesto Ja in Jamaica and Road To Freedom and featuring appearances by the artists, as well as Indian actor and UNICEF celebrity advocate, Kareena Kapoor Khan and British actress Lena Headey.To coincide with the release of the song, UNICEF is partnering with TikTok to launch the #OneLoveOneHeart challenge, encouraging TikTok users to post videos using the One Love chorus; revealing who or what they hold dear – their One Love – nominating five friends or family members to do the same and donating to One Love for UNICEF.The money raised from One Love will help UNICEF respond to immediate needs by providing soap, masks, gloves, hygiene kits, protective equipment and life-saving information for children and families; back near term recovery efforts, including by supporting education, protection and healthcare systems; and further UNICEF work.UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore said:“One Love is one of the world’s most iconic solidarity anthems. But it is also a song about children, and their hopes and dreams for a better, more united and equal world. Today, in the midst of a global pandemic, responding to Bob Marley’s call to ‘hear the children crying one love’ is more important and relevant than ever. Only together can we defeat COVID-19 and reimagine a more equal, less discriminatory world for children.”In addition, UNICEF has also partnered with jewellery brand, Pandora, which has launched an augmented reality #OneLoveOneHeart filter on Instagram. Every use of the filter will unlock US $1, up to the total of US $ 1 million that Pandora has committed to the campaign.The campaign’s visual approach has been created by VaynerMedia London with CEO Gary Vaynerchuk leading a fundraising live stream on TikTok at 8pm EST today to announce the campaign and the #OneLoveOneHeart challenge.Gary Vaynerchuk, CEO of VaynerMedia, said: Advertisement Melanie May | 21 July 2020 | News 1,157 total views, 3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis16 About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com.
Home Indiana Agriculture News College Students Receive 2013 Pork Industry Scholarships The Pork Checkoff is dedicated to helping develop the next generation of pork professionals – according to National Pork Board President Conley Nelson. He says the checkoff’s ongoing service and obligation to producers includes ensuring there’s a sustainable source of young people ready to take on the industry’s commitment to continuous improvement in all aspects of pork production. That’s why the checkoff has awarded 22 college students from across the U.S. scholarships based on scholastic merit, leadership, pork industry involvement and future pork production career plans. Nelson says a skilled workforce is essential for the competitiveness of the pork industry – and this is a chance for the industry to encourage these young people to join a workforce offering many diverse opportunities.One scholarship recipient – Corey Carpenter of California – will receive five-thousand dollars. The runner-up – Austin Putz of Iowa – will receive 35-hundred dollars. The 20 other scholarship recipients will each get two-thousand dollars. They are: Courtney Adams of Florida, David Ammann of Illinois, Denise Beam of Pennsylvania, Vance Brown of Pennsylvania, Bailey Farrer of Indiana, Cassandra Ferring of North Carolina, Erin Geary of Missouri, Corrine Harris of Washington, Tori Harris of Oklahoma, Cassie Holloway of Maryland, Andrew Langel of Iowa, Emily Limes of Ohio, Amanda Outhouse of Iowa, Rachel Palinski of Georgia, Matt Patterson of Missouri, Taylor Petersen of Iowa, Brent Saxton of Iowa, Sterling Schnepf of Iowa, Katie Stueck of Iowa and Alyssa Thomas of Missouri.Source: NAFB News Service Facebook Twitter By Andy Eubank – Apr 18, 2013 Facebook Twitter SHARE SHARE College Students Receive 2013 Pork Industry Scholarships Previous articleTexas Fertilizer Explosion Tragic but RareNext articleAmerican Ethanol Races into Spotlight this Weekend in Kansas Andy Eubank
BurundiAfrica The 2020 pandemic has challenged press freedom in Africa Burundian appeal court upholds prison sentences for four journalists to go further BurundiAfrica News Receive email alerts Help by sharing this information Reports June 25, 2010 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Pro-government radio station’s disturbing comments Organisation June 5, 2020 Find out more November 27, 2020 Find out more Four Burundian journalists complete 12 months in arbitrary detention News October 21, 2020 Find out more Reporters Without Borders is astonished that the National Council for Communication (CNC), the media regulatory body, has ignored a joint letter it received on 8 June from local human rights and journalists’ organisations that condemned the very disturbing tone of pro-government Rema FM’s broadcasts in the tense run-up to the 28 June presidential election.“We are surprised by the CNC’s silence in response to the alert that it was sent by local journalists’ organisations,” Reporters Without Borders said. “Their request should be taken seriously as the content of Rema FM’s broadcasts is grave and comparable to that of a hate media.”The press freedom organisation added: “Burundi is experiencing a period of instability marked by significant political unrest. The media regulatory body therefore has a duty to react and to severely sanction those responsible for these broadcasts.”Some of the privately-owned station’s broadcasts have contained very aggressive comments in the past few weeks. Reporters Without Borders has obtained recordings of some of these broadcasts. Here are some extracts:“The opposition political parties in Burundi are trying to destabilise the country and stir up the population,” a presenter said on 6 June. “They have no proof of the electoral fraud they are denouncing. They must stop denigrating the population, which continues to be the great judge of these elections.” The presenter then gave the names and addresses of people identified as members of the opposition.“Burundians had better keep their wits about them amid this criminal enterprise in order to avoid falling into the same disaster as in the past (…) A word to the wise is enough.”“The opposition parties seem to be getting ready to disrupt security by using their youth movements (…) The start of their dirty work has seen set for next Monday, 7 June.”In a broadcast on 8 June, the station’s journalists directly targeted the recently expelled Human Rights Watch representative in Burundi, accusing her of manipulating opposition leaders. “Human Rights Watch is represented in just one ubiquitous woman, who does not intend to let up in her schemes to implicate the leaders of the Burundian army and police in murders committed in our country (…) She does not intended to let up in her campaign of demonization (…) and is manipulating local NGO representatives and political opposition leaders (…) We must keep an eye on this matter.”The current political situation is extremely tense. President Pierre Nkurunziza is now the only candidate in the 28 June election as the 13 opposition candidates withdrew after claiming that the 24 May municipal elections were marred by irregularities. See the previous release .Jean Ping, the chairperson of the African Union Commission, yesterday voiced concern about the recent political developments in Burundi while UN independent expert Akich Okola today said he feared that the presidential election could result in more human rights violations. RSF_en Follow the news on Burundi News
ColumnsA Restless Pause Akash Menon & Bency Ramakrishnan17 May 2020 11:06 PMShare This – xIt is a time of inconceivable turmoil. As the nation battles a cataclysmic pandemic that threatens both life and economy, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Uddhav Thackeray, finds himself distracted in the midst of attending to matters of the state. On 28th November 2019, after a political game of thrones, Thackeray was sworn-in as the Chief Minister of Maharashtra with the strength…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIt is a time of inconceivable turmoil. As the nation battles a cataclysmic pandemic that threatens both life and economy, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Uddhav Thackeray, finds himself distracted in the midst of attending to matters of the state. On 28th November 2019, after a political game of thrones, Thackeray was sworn-in as the Chief Minister of Maharashtra with the strength and support of the Maha Vikas Aghadi – a three-way coalition between the Shiv Sena, the Nationalist Congress Party and the Indian National Congress. What was lost in the boisterous celebrations that followed the saccharine victory over the Bharatiya Janata Party was the fact that Thackeray was not an elected member of either the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of Maharashtra, a mandate of the Constitution of India. Under Article 164(4) of the Constitution, if a Chief Minister or Cabinet Minister is not a member of either house of the state legislature for a consecutive period of six months, then on expiry of the said period he/she ceases to be such Minister. It, hence, becomes imperative for Thackeray to secure membership to the Council on or before 27th May 2020. It is believed that Thackeray had initially intended to obtain a seat in the Council by election. The Members of the Legislative Assembly, who are popularly elected, are required in turn to elect one-third of the Members of the Legislative Council. A seat by election would, therefore, have been a theoretical certainty for Thackeray given the majority the MVA presently commands in the Assembly. Unfortunately for him, with the proliferation of the COVID-19 virus and the ensuing nationwide lockdown, the elections to the Council were temporarily suspended. As an election through the Assembly seemed improbable before the 27th May deadline, the cabinet was left with no option but to seek Thackeray’s membership to the Council by nomination. In terms of Article 171 of the Constitution, an approximate two-twelfths of the members of the Council are to be nominated by the Governor and shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters like literature, science, art, co-operative movement or social service. Thackeray is the eighth Chief Minister of Maharashtra, who though not elected by popular mandate, has sought election/nomination under the mechanism provided under Article 171 of the Constitution. Accordingly, on 9th April 2020, the state cabinet forwarded to the Governor of Maharashtra, Bhagat Singh Koshyari, its recommendation for nomination of Thackeray to the Council. This nomination of the state cabinet was challenged before the Bombay High Court in the case of Ramkrishnan @ Rajesh Govindswamy Pillay, President (Conveyor) vs. The State of Maharashtra & Ors. However, vide Order dated 20th April 2020, the HC was pleased to dismiss the Petition, while making a significant observation that the Governor is required to be advised by the Council of Ministers of the state under Article 163 while exercising power under Article 171(3)(e) read with Clause 5. It also proceeded to note that the Governor is expected to consider whether the proposal/recommendation received from the Council of Ministers is valid in law. To ensure that it does not interfere with the Governor’s independent decision-making authority, the Hon’ble Court refused to grant any relief to the Petitioner, a member of the BJP’s Working Committee. However, the Governor continued to remained non-committal on the nomination, and sought no clarifications from the state cabinet to assuage any reservations he may have as to the legality of the nomination. Consequently, the recommendation for Thackeray’s nomination was renewed on 28th April 2020, with a delegation of the MVA leaders led by Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar seeking personal audience with Koshyari. On 29th April 2020, Thackeray is believed to have escalated the issue to the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi – an indication, if ever there was one, of the sway the Centre holds over Raj Bhavan. In a peculiar turn of events and on a specific request from an anxious state cabinet, on 1st May 2020, Koshyari, instead of accepting the nomination as he was bound to do, wrote to the Election Commission urging the latter to declare elections to nine vacant seats in the Council. Following a meeting of the senior officials of the EC, a decision was taken to hold elections to the nine Council seats on 21st May 2020, after serving the mandatory 21-day notice period. In delaying his assent to Thackeray’s nomination to the Council, Koshyari may not have fallen foul of the letter of the law; but by withholding a recommendation made by the state cabinet for close to a month when the law offers him no scope for discretion, he has skirted the edge of Constitutional impropriety. The culpability is compounded given the attempt to derail the wheels of the state government in the midst of an unprecedented domestic crisis. The genesis of Article 164(4) of the Constitution that provides for a grace period of six months to any Minister who has not been elected may be traced to Section 10(2) of the Government of India Act, 1935. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s rationale behind retaining this provision in its entirety was to ensure two things: i) that an otherwise competent individual who has not been elected by a specific constituency for some reason is not barred from being appointed a Minister on that ground alone, and ii) the fact that a nominated Minister being a part of the Cabinet neither violates the principle of collective responsibility nor does it violate the principle of confidence. The Supreme Court has consistently upheld such appointments in various cases, including Har Sharan Verma vs. Shri Tribhuvan Narain Singh, Chief Minister, U.P., AIR 1971 SC 1331, wherein the appointment of Shri T. N. Singh as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in the absence of being a member of either house was challenged. The Petitioner argued that a Governor cannot appoint a person who is not a Member of the Legislature as a Minister under Article 164 (1) of the Constitution. However, the Court upheld the validity of Article 164(4) and held that a person, not being a Member of either House, can continue in office for a period of six months. In this backdrop, the refusal of the Governor of Maharashtra to nominate Thackeray by exercising his right under Article 171 assumes wider significance. It also points to a question that has been at the epicentre of debates on division of powers between the formal and real heads of the Executive in keeping with India’s Westminsterial legacy. Under Article 163(1) of the Constitution, the Council of Ministers, along with the Chief Minister, is required to aid and advise the Governor in exercise of his functions, except in so far as he is, by or under this Constitution, required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. Dwelling on the exception enumerated in this provision sheds light on the aspect of discretionary powers, if any, that the Governor may have under our constitutional polity. The question of whether this exception ought to be retained in the Constitution became the subject of an animated debate in the Constituent Assembly. The primary concern of a majority of the members of the Constituent Assembly appeared to be about the need to bestow upon the Governor such discretionary powers when the position was being contemplated as a purely symbolic one. Dr. Ambedkar assuaged the members of their concerns by pointing out that “… the clause is a very limited clause. Therefore, Article 143 will have to be read in conjunction with such other articles which specifically reserve the power to the Governor. It is not a general clause giving the Governor power to disregard the advice of his ministers in any matter in which he finds he ought to disregard.”. Article 143 of the Draft Constitution finds mention in our present Constitution as Article 163. Article 163(2) of the Constitution mandates that “if any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as respects which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.”. In Nabam Rebia and Bamang Felix vs. Deputy Speaker, Arunachal Pradesh, 2016 SCC OnLine SC 694, the Supreme Court held that according primacy to Article 163(2) would convert the Governor into an all-pervasive constitutional authority which is clearly not in keeping with the basic tenets of the Constitution. It also affirmed, yet again, that the Governor is only a formal and constitutional head of the executive and that the Constitution offers no scope for the exercise of a parallel administration. An argument may be advanced in favour of the exercise of the Governor’s discretionary powers under certain circumstances, but it may be pertinent to note that even these powers have been subjected to various forms of limitations and checks over time, either in terms of the Constitution itself, or made possible by the Court’s interpretation of it. In Rameshwar Prasad vs. Union of India, (2006) 2 SCC 1 , discretionary actions of the Governor were brought within the ambit of judicial review. This was in keeping with the landmark decision in S.R. Bommai vs. Union of India, (1994) 3 SCC 1, where along with expanding the scope of judicial review to cover gubernatorial decisions, a set of guidelines were also laid down for the Governors to consider while exercising some of their rights under the Constitution. It may not be an overstatement to suggest that such interventions were necessitated owing to questionable exertion of powers by the Governors. A seminal ruling on this issue is the Supreme Court’s decision in Shamsher Singh vs. State of Punjab, AIR 1974 SC 2192, where the scope and extent of the powers of formal heads as envisaged in the Constitution came to be meticulously explored. It held the following: “We declare the law of this branch of our Constitution to be that the President and Governor, custodians of all executive and other powers under various Articles, shall, by virtue of these provisions, exercise their formal constitutional powers only upon and in accordance with the advice of their Ministers save in a few well known exceptional situations. Without being dogmatic or exhaustive, these situations relate to (a) the choice of Prime Minister (Chief Minister) restricted though his choice is, by the paramount consideration that he should command a majority in the House; (b) the dismissal of a Government which has lost its majority in the House but refuses to quit office; (c) the dissolution of the House where an appeal to the country is necessitous, although in this area the Head of State should avoid getting involved in politics and must be advised by his Prime Minister (Chief Minister) who will eventually take the responsibility for the step. We do not examine in detail the constitutional proprieties in these predicaments except to utter the caution that even here the action must be compelled by the peril to democracy and the appeal to the House or to the country must become blatantly obligatory.”. Another instance where the real and formal heads of state locked horns was in the case of State of Gujarat vs. Justice R.A. Mehta, (2013) 3 SCC 1, which concerned the challenge to the appointment of the Lokayukta by the Governor. The Supreme Court held that the Governor is synonymous with the State Government, and can take an independent decision upon his/her own discretion only when he/she acts as a statutory authority under a particular Act, or under the exceptions provided in the Constitution itself. Thus, the SC clarified the exceptional circumstances wherein the Governor could act independently. It is of import that even in specific circumstances where the Governor has been empowered with such form of a discretionary power, there are substantial restrictions. For example, the power to withhold assent to Bills under Article 200 is limited to the extent that if the same is presented to the Governor for a second time, the Governor lacks the authority to withhold his assent for the second time. Similarly, the powers to reserve a Bill for the consideration of the President and promulgate Ordinances under Article 213 have also sought to be restricted by several committees in the past such as the Rajamannar Committee. Even then, it bodes well to recall that such discretionary actions may still attract judicial review if the same are found to be mala fide or arbitrary. The Constitutional Debates surrounding these provisions have made the intention and inclination of the framers of the Constitution unquestionably clear: The Governor is perceptibly empowered, but remains a titular head who must act within the canopy of the state cabinet’s recommendations. If he disagrees with the cabinet’s mandate, it must be under the recognized exceptions, absent which he risks infringing the Constitution. The logical consequence of a conjoint reading of Articles 163 and 171 of the Constitution, and the various decisions of the Supreme Court which repeatedly establish the Governor’s limited discretionary power under these provisions, makes it evident that Koshyari’s act of delaying the acceptance of the cabinet recommendation toyed with what the Constitution would consider appropriate. The time may be nigh for the guardians of the Constitution to consider whether an indefinite deferral of a decision is tantamount to exercising discretion where none exists. Recommendations of the state cabinet ought to be accompanied by a ticking clock, lest the functioning of a state empowered by the Constitution be held at ransom to the whims of a Governor with vested political interests. One can only hope that the reverence for democratic institutions and the inexhaustible veneration for constitutional values that guided our forefathers may prevail upon us.Views Are Personal Only. Next Story